Groundwater Works

Groundwater Bodies Delineation And First Characterisation

Groundwater bodies’ (GWB) delineation was carried on both in the basis of the “Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), Guidance document No 2” and the knowledge acquired during the developing of the Spanish River Basin Management Plans (RBMP).

Due to the large tradition and experience on hydrogeological issues in Turkey, delineation and first characterization processes were supported with a large amount of hydrogeological data provided by the Beneficiary (Turkish counterpart). Indeed, nowadays Master Plan works are updating this information and bringing more and new data. Furthermore, delineation and first characterisation processes were carried on with the close collaboration of the Turkish experts from the ministry and the DSi and most of the decision-making process was done in consensus.

Finally, 92 GWB were delineated. Eighteen of them in the Konya Closed Basin, 38 in the Büÿuk Menderes Basin, 24 in the Susurluk Basin and 12 in the Meriç-Ergene Basin. An initial characterisation sheet was filled for each GWB. In the following figure an example of these GWB initial characterisation sheets is showed.

Exploitation Rate Estimation 

In order to estimate the Exploitation Rate (ER) for each GWB the Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), Guidance document No 18” was followed and LTAAR (Long-Term Average Recharge), LTAAQ (Long-Term Average rate of Abstraction), AGR (Available Groundwater Resource) and EFN (Long-Term Ecological Flow Needs) for each GWB were calculated. Data and information provided by the Beneficiary regarding to Groundwater Uses, Groundwater Infiltration Rates, etc. was used in the ER estimation. 

IMPRESS Analysis and RISK Assessment

GWB IMPRESS Analysis and RISK Assessment was addressed following the “Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), Guidance document No 3”.

In order to get the IMPRESS analysis the information and data related to the human activities with a potential risk over the groundwater was considered. These human activities include industrial, urban and agricultural activities and both the extraction of groundwater for its running needs and the chemical releases to the groundwater. The steps followed during the Impress Analysis and Risk Assessment Processes were: 

- Identifying the main Pressures over the groundwater in each GWB

- With the Turkish Groundwater Experts close collaboration, setting of significance threshold values and identifying the significant pressures in each GWB.

- Using historical data regarding to groundwater (i.e. groundwater levels trends, groundwater chemical analysis, etc.), assessing the Impacts in each GWB.

- Finally, a RISK matrix to assess the risk on falling with the environmental requirements of the Water Framework Directive of each GWB was used.

Article 5 report

In collaboration with the surface waters working team and taking into account the upper works showed, the Article 5 Report was performed in order to meet the needs of the Water Framework Directive.

Groundwater Monitoring Networks Design

Due to the Groundwater Level Monitoring Networks currently operating in Turkey, a large number of its groundwater level monitoring point were added to the future Groundwater Quantitative Status Monitoring Networks. Nevertheless, the design of the future networks will imply the addition of new groundwater level monitoring points to meet the Water Framework Directive requirements due to the GWB approach (i.e. new limits, new aquifers formations included, etc.).

Regarding to the Groundwater Chemical Status Networks, as a result of the lack of these type of monitoring networks, a deep analysis of the existing groundwater chemical data, the GWB conceptual models and the sampled borehole/well characteristics (i.e. construction details, lithology of the location, depth, etc.) was done.

With the basis of the Consortium’s GWB monitoring networks proposal, 220 sampling points were selected in order to perform a groundwater sampling campaign in the last quarter of 2016.

Capacity building and technical visits

During the last two years four capacity building workshops were carried on:

- Delineation and Initial Characterisation

- Groundwater Monitoring Networks Design

- IMPRESS Analysis and RISK Assessment , and

- Groundwater Status Assessment.

With this purpose, Turkish, Spanish and other Nationalities experts shared their knowledge in the issues covered in the workshops.

Furthermore, with the scope of discuss methodologies, share information and collect additional data to fulfil the works related before, two one-week technical visits for each river basin were performed.


This Publication has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the Consortium led by Tragsatec and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.